Performance DNA-Precursors of Consequence Leadership Principle-Effort
Assess a mindset
The Effort Effect
Fixed Mindset Precursors
Refusal to Practice
Refusal to study/practice/apply effort
- Physiological techniques are based on the assumption that changes in cognitive functioning are reflected by physi- ological variables. These techniques include measures of heart activity (e.g., heart rate variability), brain activity (e.g., task-evoked brain potentials), and eye activity (e.g., pupillary dilation, and blink rate). Psychophysiological measures can best be used to visualize the detailed trend and pattern of load (i.e., instantaneous, peak, average, and accumulated load). An example of a physiological method used within the cognitive load framework is presented in Paas and van Merriënboer’s (1994b) study. They measured heart-rate variability to estimate the level of cognitive load, and they found this measure to be intrusive, invalid, and in- sensitive to subtle fluctuations in cognitive load. Unlike heart-rate variability and other physiological measures, the cognitive pupillary response seems a highly sensitive in- strument for tracking fluctuating levels of cognitive load. Beatty and Lucero-Wagoner (2000) identified three useful task-evoked pupillary responses (TEPRs): mean pupil dila- tion, peak dilation, and latency to the peak. These TEPRs typically intensify as a function of cognitive load. In Van Gerven, Paas, van Merriënboer, and Schmidt’s (2002b) study, these TEPRs were measured as a function of differ- ent levels of cognitive load in both young and old partici- pants. They found that mean pupil dilation is a useful TEPR for measuring cognitive load, especially for young adults.
PupillometryPupil Size as a function of Cognitive load
Pupillary responses can reflect activation of the brain allocated to resolving cognitive tasks. It is found that greater pupil dilation is associated with increased processing in the brain. Vacchiaco and colleagues (1968) found that pupillary responses were associated with visual exposure to words with high, neutral or low value. Presented low-value words were associated with dilation, and high-value words with constriction of a pupil. In decision making tasks it was found that dilation of the pupil was increased before making a decision as a function of cognitive load. In an experiment about short-term serial memory, students heard strings of items and were asked to repeat them. Greater pupillary diameter was observed after the items were heard (pupillary diameter depending on how many items were heard), and accordingly pupillary diameter decreased after items were repeated by the participants. The more difficult the task given to participants, the greater pupillary diameter observed in the time preceding the solution, and pupil dilatation is maintained until the solution is found.
- Al- though self-ratings may appear questionable, it has been demonstrated that people are quite capable of giving a nu- merical indication of their perceived mental burden (Go- pher & Braune, 1984). Paas (1992) was the first to demonstrate this finding in the context of CLT. With regard to the model presented in Figure 1, most subjective rating techniques use the psychologically oriented concept of overall load. Subjective techniques usually involve a ques- tionnaire comprising one or multiple semantic differential scales on which the participant can indicate the experienced
level of cognitive load. Most subjective measures are multidimensional in that they assess groups of associated variables, such as mental effort, fatigue, and frustration, which are highly correlated (for an overview, see Nygren, 1991). Studies have shown, however, that reliable measures can also be obtained with unidimensional scales (e.g., Paas & van Merriënboer, 1994b). Moreover, it has been demon- strated that such scales are sensitive to relatively small dif- ferences in cognitive load and that they are valid, reliable, and unintrusive (e.g., Gimino, 2002; Paas, van Merriënboer, & Adam, 1994).
Cognitive Strain Primes effort and performanceat 3:30 in chapter 1 of Thinking, Fast and Slow, Daniel Kahneman, 2003, this concept is expounded on. It was also observed in experiments that while cognitive ease makes judgement of truths more valid cognitive strain can enhance performance. These results were obtained in an experiment in which a test was given in a font that was less legible than another fault due to contrast and the performance was substantially better in an overwhelmingly prevalent percentage of the participants in the test. The conclusion was clear that the cognitive strain of reading the font "primed" effort and increased the cognitive performance of the participants. I've personally witnessed increases in my own performance by priming a cognitive strain within myself. In studying, focusing, and in sports or listening to someone, in anything that requires effort this study is significant. In most work and on all teams effort is the essential key leading indicator of success and so "priming" or "leading" an increase in effort may be the single most important principle in leadership that we espouse. With that in mind we are always and continually looking effortfully for new techniques in personal performance and in engineering leadership of our teams, to "prime" effort.
Effort Primed by Time PressureThe most important type of time-pressure is that which is inherent in the structure of the task. Thus, severe time-pressure necessarily arises in any task which imposes a significant load on short-term memory, be- cause the subject's rate of activity must be paced by the rate of decay of the stored elements. In mental arithmetic, for instance, one must keep track of the initial problem, of partial results already obtained, and of the next step. Stopping or slowing even for an instant usually forces one to return to the beginning and start again. In tests of short-term recall, the increasing number of items that must be rehearsed causes a rapid buildup of time-pressure, which is also reflected in autonomic measures of arousal. Time is also critical in a pitch-discrimination task with brief tones, where rapidly decaying traces must be quickly evaluated. In all these tasks, large pupillary dilations occur. - Attention and Effort (Daniel Kahneman 1973)
Instilling a mindset of Effort
EnergyEffort must be supported by physical health and fuel for energy creation from our foods.