Matrix for Drilling Engineering
||SPE Task Force
on Minimal Competency + Drill Science Task Force on Leading Edge Competency
||MINIMUM COMPETENCE BREADTH
||MINIMUM COMPETENCE DEPTH
||ABOVE MINIMUM COMPETENCE
||Calculate mud weight necessary to maintain well control and
volume of mud required to fill the hole while tripping out.
||Design and/or implement procedure to successfully circulate out
an influx. Determine fluid type of influx with data collected after influx.
Understand relationship between geologic depth reference and drilling depth
||Design and/or implement procedure to successfully control an
||Design DOWNCAST, and BROADCAST Think in terms
of stresses and pressures instead of misleading density. Highlight Safety Critical Moments (SCM) and
Elements (SCE) of the drilling program for heightened awareness and design
appropriations for equipment inspection and personnel competency levels and
casing program (sizes, setting depths).
||Develop a casing program based on a provided pore pressure/frac
gradient plot. Understand relationship between desired production flow rates
and tubing/casing configuration.
||Determine the surface casing setting depth required to protect
fresh water sands. Prepare pore pressure and frac pressure versus depth
||Optimize the number and depths of protective casings. Optimize
the size of the casing strings and liners.
||Optimize the casing setting depths, and hole sizes based on
considerations of kick tolerance and productivity index of the zones that
will be penetrated.
||Understand basic design principles (burst, collapse, tension in
the pressure/ temperature environment that the casing will encounter).
||Design surface, intermediate and production casing/liner to
maintain well integrity.
||Select optimal casing/ connections for hostile environments
(HPHT, H2S, CO2, salt, etc.).
||Understand and measure thermal and chemical precursors of
consequence and model these in a thermal casing design. Understand and engineer Annular Fluid
Management systems that accounts and responds to Annular Fluid Expansion
(AFE), contraction (AFC), Annular Pressure Buildup (APB) or drawdown
(APD). Integrate thermal effects on
casing and tubing including movement and buckling calculations. Understand thermodynamics of hydrogen
diffusion affects on corrosion, cracking, embrittlement and failures
associated with H2S, and CO2 and design appropriately. Understand and know how to modify
precursors and apply mitigations.
||Understand requirement to protect fresh water with surface
casing setting depth/cement and requirements on directional programs to stay
within lease/block boundaries.
||Understand the process required to comply with regulatory
requirements. (for example, design an abandonment procedure to isolate zones
per regulation or that may cross flow, know what regulatory applications to
prepare, and how to verify compliance).
||Calculate emissions from rig operations (air pollutants from
engine exhaust rates, % oil on cuttings, etc.).
||Understand the precursors of consequence to measure and monitor
stress and strain on structures in our design. Understand the need to focus on the margin
between stress and strength of our structures, including the structures of
our teams and individuals. Understand
the principles of effort needed.
Understand confidence as a monitor of the health of our operations. Understand the role of competence in this
cycle of performance.
||Calculate the minimum mud weight required to balance formation
pressure for each hole interval.
||Design mud program to maintain well control considering casing
programs and formation integrity. Select acceptable mud types. Specify mud
properties (e.g., density and fluid loss requirements).
||Optimize the cost of the mud systems by altering the inhibitive
nature of the mud systems. Establish the critical minimum inhibition
||Manipulate fine details of mud properties to achieve drilling
needs. Control circumferential
stresses with engineered salinities (osmotic), chemicals (capillary), fluid
temperatures (thermal), densities (hydrostatic), and well control issues with
water loss (gas diffusivity), and mud properties (gas solubility).
directional well path (including horizontal/ multilaterals).
||Understand the relationship between difficulty and lateral
||Select appropriate kickoff points, build rates, required hole
angles and bottom hole assemblies.
||Optimize the directional program and casing design to avoid key
seating. Evaluate casing wear and develop designs to mitigate the problem.
Develop a horizontal or multilateral drilling program.
||Design trajectories that take into account geomechanical
properties of formations penetrated and arbitrary orientations of the
wellbore that meets objectives of well.
This may include trajectories through and around salt bodies that will
require extensive knowledge of salt tectonics.
||Recommend wellhead/BOP ratings to maintain well integrity.
Understand performance properties of drill string and BHA components.
||Determine BOP stack arrangements, establish test requirements.
Calculate ton miles to slip and cut drill line. Calculate slip crushing
forces on a landing string.
||Design equipment components for a fit-for-purpose rig to
||Specify equipment standards appropriated to BROADCAST
levels. FORECAST these levels in the
design phase to ensure procurement standards are appropriated to anticipated
well conditions. SCE should be
specified and equipment installed during SCM should include this heightened
awareness and competencies of the teams installing equipment during those
procedure to implement formation evaluation program.
||Understand hole considerations for successful open hole logging.
||Understand interaction between mud composition, hole integrity
and types of logs that can be run successfully
||Design well testing operations procedure for hostile environment
(e.g., HPHT, mobile marine drilling unit).
||Gather data for Drilling Geomechanics Mechanical Earth Model for
future and current drilling. This
includes XLOTs, and hydraulic
fracturing to estimate S3, and SH, estimating rock strength from breakouts,
and SH from breakout rotations.
Estimating SH from drilling induced tensile fractures and wellbore
||Understand basic principles of fluid mechanics and non-Newtonian
||Calculate pressure drop through the system and optimize bit
hydraulics. Understand principals of equivalent circulating density.
||Integrate hydraulics program with geological setting and mud
||Model thermodynamic hydraulics model and integrate its
geomechanical interaction with the wellbore (see above; thermal, chemical,
diffusivity, capillary, osmotic, geometrical).
solids control program.
||Understand operations of basic solids control
||Size standard solids control equipment (shaker, desander, and
desilter) for mud and hydraulics programs.
||Design closed loop system with zero discharge.
||Engineer specialty solids control equipment for special
situations especially areas that might introduce more low gravity solids with
conventional standard equipment.
||Understand regulatory requirements (fresh water protection, zone
isolation, etc.). Understand application of basic cement additives.
||Design cement slurries and procedures with sufficient pump time
and other characteristics to successfully complete a job. Understand
application of specialty cement additives.
||Design cement jobs for special situations (shallow water flow,
underground blowout, etc).
||Design cement job contingencies for moderate probability
delivery system malfunctions on critical jobs. Design for special needs like APM and HTHP,
H2S, and CO2.
String, BHA, Bit Design
the basics of each.
how changes in sizes affect observable parameters.
how each of these components works together in harmony and understand that
also there are harmonic disturbances that must be accounted for and responded
harmonics with drillstring vibration modelling. Integrate the drillstring modelling with
geomechanical modelling and understand the relationship between torque,
torque resistance and torsional and axial stiffness in regards to drilling
malfunctions and ROP such as Stick Slip, Bit Whirl and vibration. Be able to design in advance to avoid these
problems and optimize high ROP systems that work within the hydraulics and geomechanical
systems. This design also takes into
consideration special BHAs and components for Stuck Pipe Prevention.
the basics modes of stuck pipe.
how modalities of stuck pipe affect mitigations.
casing setting depths, drill string components, hydraulics programs, solids
control systems and drilling fluids to avoid stuck pipe. Have and understand how to use a Stuck Pipe Freedom Workshheet
measure, monitor and manage the thermal and geomechanical contributions to
stuck pipe. These include concepts of
"ovality", "dilatancy", "creep", wellbore
stability, formation transitions,
hole cleaning, operational considerations, the ability to understand, measure and calculate the force pinning drill string as a function of differential pressure, zone permeability, thickness, hole diameter, pipe diameters, mud type, wall cake qualities, hole orientation and the ability to foresee,
prevent and mitigate these issues.